Until Adam and Eve had sinned against God, they had possessed bodily immortality - they would never die. Sin, however, besides killing the supernatural life in their souls, also brought the reality of bodily death in to human existence. This "Original Sin" also brought with it a certain dominion of the devil to have power over every human during their earthly lives and make every human more susceptible to sin. The common term given to this inclination to sin is called "concupiscence".
|Divine Revelation (Scriptural Proof)|
- 15I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed: she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel. (Genesis 3:15)
- 19In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return to the earth, out of which thou wast taken: for dust thou art, and into dust thou shalt return. (Genesis 3:19)
- 31Now is the judgment of the world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. (John 12:31)
- 30I will not now speak many things with you. For the prince of this world cometh, and in me he hath not any thing. (John 14:30)
- 3And if our gospel be also hid, it is hid to them that are lost, 4In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of unbelievers, that the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God, should not shine unto them. (2 Corinthians 4:3-4)
- 14Therefore because the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner hath been partaker of the same: that, through death, he might destroy him who had the empire of death, that is to say, the devil: 15And might deliver them, who through the fear of death were all their lifetime subject to servitude. (Hebrews 2:14-15)
|Catechism of the Catholic Church|
- 407 The doctrine of original sin, closely connected with that of redemption by Christ, provides lucid discernment of man's situation and activity in the world. By our first parents' sin, the devil has acquired a certain domination over man, even though man remains free. Original sin entails "captivity under the power of him who thenceforth had the power of death, that is, the devil". Ignorance of the fact that man has a wounded nature inclined to evil gives rise to serious errors in the areas of education, politics, social action and morals.
|Ecumenical Council Documents|
- General Council of Chalcedon (451)
- The letter of Pope Leo to Flavian, bishop of Constantinople, about Eutyches
- "It was the devil's boast that humanity had been deceived by his trickery and so had lost the gifts God had given it; and that it had been stripped of the endowment of immortality and so was subject to the harsh sentence of death ."
- General Council of Trent (1545)
- Decree Concerning Original Sin
- "1. If anyone does not confess that the first man, Adam, when he transgressed the commandment of God in paradise, immediately lost the holiness and justice in which he had been constituted, and through the offense of that prevarication incurred the wrath and indignation of god, and thus death with which God had previously threatened him, and, together with death, captivity under his power who thenceforth had the empire of death, that is to say, the devil, and that the entire Adam through that offense of prevarication was changed in body and soul for the worse , let him be anathema."
|Fathers and Doctors of the Church Documents|
- Against Heresies (Book 4) (180) - Against Heresies - Irenaeus
- Chapter 22 Christ did not come for the sake of the men of one age only, but for all who, living righteously and piously, had believed upon Him; and for those, too, who shall believe.
- "For this is the end of the human race inheriting God; that as in the beginning, by means of our first [parents], we were all brought into bondage, by being made subject to death ; so at last, by means of the New Man, all who from the beginning [were His] disciples, having been cleansed and washed from things pertaining to death, should come to the life of God."
- De Civitate Dei (Book 12) (426) - City of God - Augustine
- Chapter 21: That There Was Created at First But One Individual, and that the Human Race Was Created in Him.
- "Man, on the other hand, whose nature was to be a mean between the angelic and bestial, He created in such sort, that if he remained in subjection to His Creator as his rightful Lord, and piously kept His commandments, he should pass into the company of the angels, and obtain, without the intervention of death, a blessed and endless immortality ; but if he offended the Lord his God by a proud and disobedient use of his free will, he should become subject to death, and live as the beasts do—the slave of appetite, and doomed to eternal punishment after death . And therefore God created only one single man, not, certainly, that he might be a solitary, bereft of all society, but that by this means the unity of society and the bond of concord might be more effectually commended to him, men being bound together not only by similarity of nature, but by family affection. And indeed He did not even create the woman that was to be given him as his wife, as he created the man, but created her out of the man, that the whole human race might derive from one man."
- De Civitate Dei (Book 14)
(426) - City of God - Augustine
- Chapter 1: That the Disobedience of the First Man Would Have Plunged All Men into the Endless Misery of the Second Death, Had Not the Grace of God Rescued Many.
- "...created man with such a nature that the members of the race should not have died, had not the two first (of whom the one was created out of nothing, and the other out of him) merited this by their disobedience; for by them so great a sin was committed, that by it the human nature was altered for the worse, and was transmitted also to their posterity, liable to sin and subject to death . And the kingdom of death so reigned over men, that the deserved penalty of sin would have hurled all headlong even into the second death, of which there is no end, had not the undeserved grace of God saved some therefrom."
- De Nuptiis et Concupiscentia (419) - On Marriage and Concupiscence - Augustine
- Chapter 15 Man, by Birth, is Placed Under the Dominion of the Devil Through Sin; We Were All One in Adam When He Sinned
- "He then proceeds to ask: Why, then, are they in the devil's power whom God created? And he finds an answer to his own question apparently from a phrase of mine. Because of sin, says he, not because of nature . Then framing his answer in reference to mine, he says: But as there cannot be offspring without the sexes, so there cannot be sin without the will. Yes, indeed, such is the truth. For even as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; so also has death passed through to all men, for in him all have sinned. Romans 5:12 By the evil will of that one man all sinned in him, since all were that one man, from whom, therefore, they individually derived original sin."